Q: How do I tell if I am already a hacker?
A: Ask yourself the following three questions:
Do you speak code, fluently?
Do you identify with the goals and values of the hacker community?
Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?
If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker. No two alone are sufficient.
The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document.
You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project.
The second test is about attitude. If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description
of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That's the inward half; the other,
outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects.
Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread?
Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments
of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place?
But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests —
two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off "intellectual-property" power grabs that would make open source
illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the
outward attitude properly includes support of them. But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker
attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive
and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed
the point. The right response is probably “Shut up and show them the code.”
The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. I observed in the section called “What Is a Hacker?”
that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an
inside and an outside. In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the
importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with
the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in this
century, we have our own T-shirts.
Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of "invisible colleges", have noted
that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers — core members with the social authority to endorse
new members into the network. Because the "invisible college" that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the role
of gatekeeper is informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper.
Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard
to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it.
Q: Will you teach me how to hack?
A: Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to "teach me all
about hacking". Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source
advocate, take up 110% of my time.
Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers
want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know.
Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you
meet with specific questions.
If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front. First, we've found that people who are lazy
or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers — so take care
to spell correctly, and use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for
a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves
using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery.
Q: How can I get started, then?
A: The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups
on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university.
LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and get started.
Q: When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?
A: Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but
I know of exceptions in both directions.
Q: How long will it take me to learn to hack?
A: That depends on how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Most people can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen
months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; if you are a real hacker, you will spend the
rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft.
Q: Are Visual Basic a good language to start with?
A: If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows.
This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing
a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.
There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations
of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows
most of its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features
you use — more careful than any newbie is really capable of being — you'll end up locked into only those platforms
Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python,
Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits. No, don't
ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead.
One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general,
any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors'
operating systems, is a poor one to learn to hack in.
Q: Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack?
A: No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time
for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness.
Q: How can I get the password for someone else's account?
A: This is cracking. Go away, idiot.
Q: How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email?
A: This is cracking. Get lost, moron.
Q: How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC?
A: This is cracking. Begone, cretin.
Q: I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?
A: No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not
possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws,
which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve. The only reliable prevention starts with switching
to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security.
Q: I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me?
A: Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type "format c:". Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes.
Q: Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?
A: The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several
lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio).
(I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently
some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.)
Q: Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects?
A: I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting.
For an introduction to Python, see the introductory materials on the Python site.
Q: Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker?
A: No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus
or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics). Knowing
some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics,
and graph theory) can be helpful.
Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians
do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics.
If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it.
I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name
Of This Book?. Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is a good
sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one.
Q: What language should I learn first?
A: XHTML (the latest dialect of HTML) if you don't already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books
out there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide.
But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python.
You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, and Perl is still more popular than Python, but it's harder to learn and
(in my opinion) less well designed.
C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl. Don't try to learn it first.
Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Avoid.
Q: What kind of hardware do I need?
A: It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits
on a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than
powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty
The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible,
should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines. The only real sticky area is
modems; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux.
There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here.
Q: I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on?
A: No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having
other people choose your direction almost never works.
Try this. Watch the project announcements scroll by on Freshmeat for a few days. When you see one that makes you think "Cool!
I'd like to work on that!", join it.
Q: Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft?
A: No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will
still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft.
Write good code — that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma.
Q: But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living?
A: This seems unlikely — so far, the open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them
away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or
not the program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much "free" software gets written, there always
seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages.
Q: How can I get started? Where can I get a free Unix?
A: If you're looking for a first project to do, don't ask me for one. Instead, go watch the project and release announcements
on Freshmeat for a project that looks interesting to you, and join it.
If you don't even have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the
most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start